D. Schmidt, M. Schütze
Materials Science Forum 696 (2011), 330-335
The oxidation resistance of ferritic-martensitic 9% chromium steels in water vapour containing atmospheres is not yet satisfactory. The chromia layer provides little protection because water vapour in the atmosphere is known to promote the formation of the volatile chromium species CrO2(OH)2. If a chromium manganese spinel is formed instead, the vapour pressure of the oxy-hydroxide is greatly reduced and evaporation can largely be avoided. Enrichment of the substrate with manganese was achieved using three different processes: using (i) a sputtering technique, (ii) electrochemical deposition both followed by a diffusion heat treatment, (iii) the pack cementation method. Uniform diffusion of manganese was obtained with all of the investigated processes. The improved oxidation behaviour of the coated samples in synthetic air with 10% water vapour at 650°C was demonstrated.